Added: Garner Krantz - Date: 28.09.2021 08:38 - Views: 23242 - Clicks: 7369
And what we learnto value in these cultural environments stays with us for life. Yahya R. Kamalipour 1. The world is going online and it seems that how we choose to life our lives is more related to opportunities offered by the online world than to the cultural values we are born in and raised with.
We shop, socialize, connect, communicate, work and even find our partners online. In this thesis the author will demonstrate that culture influences online dating and determining factors for finding a partner online. A cross-cultural comparison within online dating also means having the choice between various points of view: e. After a thorough initial research the author chose to compare website contents of online dating services, specifically online dating websites operating the personality-matching system. Any additional approach would have compromised the quality of the outcome of this thesis due to obvious limitation concerning the extent of s.
Thus, support or disapproval of the given hypothesis will be founded on the comparison of required profile information in online dating websites. The relevant countries were deliberately selected as they provide a very broad cultural perspective.
India and Japan were chosen to present online dating in Eastern cultures. Some aspects of culture, which are relevant within this thesis, are hard to generalise for all people within a country, as there are big differences, depending on urbanization, religion, and socio-economic status. It has to be considered that studies of Western, Westernized or Eastern cultures mostly reach social groups that are modern, urban and affluent. As this thesis is written from a Western point of view, some chapters about Eastern cultures appear more detailed than the Western equivalent. It might be opposite if the author were from Eastern cultural origin: more Western characteristics would then be regarded as remarkable.
This thesis proceeds with cultural fundamentals outlined by presenting different approaches of culture and its influence on communication and perceptions of love and marriage. Subsequently, an overview of the online dating market and different types of online dating are provided. After describing the methodology of empirical research, the actual subject of this study, online dating websites in USA, Germany, India and Japan, is presented in according subchapters.
Each subchapter starts with a short introduction about the country itself and selected cultural characteristics. The core of this thesis presents the findings of the empirical research by analysing and comparing profile information of different dating websites in relation to culture, indicating cultural similarities and highlighting cultural differences. The conclusion involves important outcomes and provides prospects to further research issues. Culturein its Latin origin meansthe tilling of the soil.
Nowadays, it commonly refers to civilizationorrefinement of the mindincluding knowledge, experience, beliefs, values, attitudes, meanings, hierarchies, heroes, religion, notions of time, roles, spatial relations, concepts of the universe, and material objects and possessions shared by a group of people in the course of generations, and which distinguishes them from another.
Culture also means a way of life: rituals, traditions, values and symbols that people of a group accept generally without thinking about themand that are passed along by communication and imitation so-called social learning from one generation to the next. Valuesform the core of culture. They are culturally fundamental convictions acquired early in lives and deal with pairings, such as right versus wrong, decent versus indecent, moral versus immoral, abnormal versus normal, and dirty versus clean.
As meanings of symbols, heroes and rituals, the values often remain unconscious and can only be inferred from the way people act under different circumstances.
Everyone carries within himself or herself patterns of thinking, feeling and potential acting. Geert Hofstede is a Dutch social psychologist and anthropologist specialized in cultural studies. Most noticeably, he developed the theory of cultural dimensions, which indicates national and regional cultural groups influencing behaviour of societies and organizations.
His study is based on the concept of national cultures, which does not focus on states as legal and political delimitation, but as nations.
But states are the only relevant foundation for researching cultural differences, because of detailed different statistics about their population, which are kept by governments and appropriate for cultural research. Between and Hofstede studied a large body of survey data about values of employees at 72 IBM subsidiaries from more than 40 countries in the world. They presented almost perfect samples, as they were similar in all respects except nationality. Therefore, every statistically researched nation could be indicated on a scale of the relevant dimension, and, be comparable with other nations and their cultures; cultural differences were visualized.
His model ofCultural dimensionsis regarded as one of the most comprehensive works and important studies of cross-cultural analysis. Thesecultural dimensions correlate ificantly with demographical, economical and geographical indicators national culture. In the following, the author details only 1 of 6 dimensions, which she regarded as the most relevant for online dating.
In individualistic cultures, independence, self-realization, individual rights and decision making is more valued.
Personal identity is defined by individual attributes. Relationships in individualism are neither obvious nor prearranged. They are voluntarily and have to be fostered. In individualistic countries, children grow up innuclearfamilies consisting of two parents sometimes even only one parent. Collectivism involves the subordination of individual goals to the goals of a collective.
Personal privacy is reduced; social norms and duty as defined by the in-group are over the pursuit of personal pleasure. There is no need for specific friendships in collectivism. Children are born into complex family structures ofextendedfamilies, where parents, grandparents and other relatives live closely together. A survey questioning students from collectivist cultures revealed the following values being particularly important: filial piety obedience to parents, respect for parents, honouring of ancestors, financial support of parentschastity in women, and patriotism.
Today, individualism-collectivism is viewed as one of the most important sources of cultural differences in social behaviour. Therefore, the author chose only this cultural dimension to establish her empirical research. Communication is often described as information exchange and transfer. Regarding intercultural communication, Hall focused on the contextin communications, which describes the information surrounding an event. He distinguishes two different contexts:high context communicationandlow context communication.
The two concepts describe acquisition and processing of information in cultural networks, especially a strong or weak referring context in communication. Acknowledgement of the information is implicitly expected. Mentioning the details could be regarded negatively. Furthermore, use of silence, behaviour, and paraverbal cues articulation, intonation, speed, voice characteristics, and volume imply a message through what is not said. Germany, Scandinavia, and USAinformation is not expected being already acknowledged or recognized without specific verbalism.
Contrary to Asian cultures, in Western cultures it is an established notion that self- disclosure typically reduces uncertainty about others and increases interpersonal trust. People in individualistic cultures verbalize and negotiate their individual wants and needs with a strong self-assertion focus. In contrast, communal, collectivistic people are more circumspective and discreet in voicing their opinions and feelings concerning interpersonal relationships because of a strong communal orientation focus.
Indeed, local cultures, politics, community, Internet use, social shaping of technology, and language influence and shape online communication. Cross-cultural comparisons of website contents indicate that cultural values are reflected in online communication styles. The Western culture believes in the importance of love for marriage, which - on first sight - seems to be universally accepted. But in most other cultures, mate selection and romantic beliefs of love and marriage are different. Love distinguishes in its connotations in many cultures.
There are two types of love known as a valid conceptualization:passionate loveandcompanionate love. It is characterized as a warm feeling of affection and tenderness involving shared values, deep attachment, long-term commitment, and psychological intimacy within the meaning of open and honest talks with a partner about personal thoughts and feelings, which are usually not expressed in other relationships. Definition of and susceptibility to love, choice of love partner and progress of a relationship are culturally affected.
Societies vary in their attitude toward love and its importance. In individualistic culturespassionate loveis highly emphasized. They value closeness, intimacy and free individual emotional expression. A committed relationship is regarded as a consequence of romantic love, which is the most important factor for marriage.
Collectivistic societies, due to its strong kinship networks and extended-family ties, view passionate love as negative. Love in its passionate meaning is clearly associated with freedom of choices. But when selecting the potential spouse, it is expected to take into the wishes of parents and other family members. Collectivistic people think passionate love relationships may disrupt the tradition of family-approved and arranged marriage-choices. Romantic relationships often connote necessary seriousness and long-term commitment. An individual needs to consider the obligations to the parents and family.
Due to traditional social norms, people in collectivistic cultures usually marry through arrangement by the family. As people have to respect the opinions of their relatives, selection of marriage partner is a crucial event for both partners, but also for their families. Arranged marriages are rather based on compatibility of the two families i. Although this marriage may not be based on romantic love, it is believed that couples in arranged marriages would develop companionate love for each other.
Another point of view is the economic standard of living, which is strongly related to beliefs about love - particularly, concerning the establishment of a marriage. Studies revealed that love was more important for marriages in cultures, where economic interdependences between spouses were weak.
Assuming a priori that extended- family ties are stronger in Japan, attitudes toward love among college students in Japan were compared to those of college students in the United States and in Germany. In the Japanese sample, romantic love was least highly valued. In some collectivistic societies, love is considered synonymous with sadness, jealousy, whereas in individualistic societies, love means happiness.
Many studies state love as an important predictor of happiness. One concept of happiness defined by scholars issubjective well-being, which consist oflife satisfactionandemotions. Interestingly, in collectivistic cultures, long-life commitment and cultural tradition are more likely related to marital satisfaction than psychological intimacy in terms of reciprocal self-disclosure, sharing activities, and revealing strong personal feelings.
In individualistic cultures, marital communication, emotional excitement and personal fulfilment contribute to subjective well-being and marital satisfaction. Meeting, falling in love, deciding to marry or cohabit is a typical, familiar depiction of an intimate relationship developing between man and woman.
It reflects universally shared assumptions about the nature of intimate, opposite-sex relationships. But they have not always prevailed. Untilin Western cultures, which are more or less individualistic cultures today, political and religious authorities generally viewed passionate love as a threat to the social, political, and religious order, and they attempted to suppress such feelings.
Marriage was primarily an economic arrangement between two families. Romeo and Juliet,a tragedy written by Shakespeare an famous English playwright of the Renaissance is still one of the most popular love stories in the Western world. Collectivistic values with their predominant, pragmatic marriage decisions moved to individualistic ones, where romantic love became the guiding force in marriage decisions.
Passionate and romantic love, marriage for love, intimacy, and sexual freedom for men and women are now highly valued. Today, societies of the non-Western world are currently undergoing similar transitions. As they achieve economic prosperity out of traditionally collectivist value system, they now appear to be moving closer to Western style individualism.Dating online comparison
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